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Distance Education and Visible Learning

Hattie on school improvement:

In the Visible Learning for Teachers… book Hattie refers to whole-school improvement as the platform for student achievement.
  • know thy impact
  • Teachers as Change Agents have more impact than Teachers as Facilitators
  • effective drivers: whole school attitude, philosophy, and theory of action.
  • wrong driver: fragmented strategies
  • Improvements are related to building a collective capacity of teachers in a school to show success - not only in achievement, but also in making learning a valued outcome, by retaining students’ interest in learning, in making students respect themselves and others, by recognizing and esteeming diversity, and by building community. Students are never ‘owned’ by a teacher, but by the school.
  • the starting place is governance and policy.
Visible Learning for Teachers Maximising Impact On Learning
John Hattie 2012
ISBN: 978-0-203-18152-1-2

Student expectations and student achievement:

Student Expectations
“Student Expectations” to express more clearly that this strategy involves the teacher finding out what are the student’s expectations and pushing the learner to exceed these expectations. Once a student has performed at a level that is beyond their own expectations, he or she gains confidence in his or her learning ability.
The following Visible Learning topics are closely related to Student Expectations and achievement.
  • Student self-reported grades
  • Teacher credibility
  • Classroom discussion
  • Teacher clarity
  • Feedback
Visible learning glossary

Student achievement
There is no universal consensus on the term achievement.
  • Summative assessment is only one of the multiple indicators of achievement.
  • Learning Achievement is definitely associated with Learning Goals and Learning Goals are multifaceted - Student achievement must be considered in a multifaceted manner.
  • Learning achievement needs to be associated with learning goals
  • cognitive (complexity and depth).
  • affective (student attitudes, interests, feelings, beliefs and dispositions)
  • psychomotor (specific skills and behaviors - engagement, persistence, punctuality, work habits, and effort)
  • School needs to consider separate methods to measure attainment and methods to measure Improvement.
    • Attainment: Resulting grades
    • Improvement: Change in performance
International Guide to Student Achievement  Edited by John Hattie and Eric Anderson 2013 IBSN: 978-0-2013-85039-8

Distance Education and Visible Learning

Distance Education and Visible Learning (global)
Some dot point history
  • Distance Education evolved from correspondence delivery models (England in 1858)
  • 1911 - Department of Correspondence Studies Queensland
  • The transformation from correspondence to distance education is explicitly tied to advances in technology and communication technologies.
  • postal service
  • radio and television
  • internet
  • online multimedia technologies
  • online interactive technologies
Technology has moved it from a marginal form of education to a popular alternative.
  • Studies on distance education (1928-1998) show no significant difference between face-to-face and correspondence/distance education.
  • However, meta-data studies show that up to 1998 Distance Education was less effective than face-to-face, and post-1998 Distance Education has become more effective than face-to-face.
  • Machtmes and Asher reported studies show that the employment of two-way interactive technology was “the only type [of delivery] that had a positive effect size.
  • Distance education that provides synchronous and asynchronous communications that enabled a broad range of interactions between students and teachers and among students have reported positive outcomes.
  • Blended model - that combines face-to-face and technology-mediated interaction is more effective than just face-to-face or just online education
International Guide to Student Achievement  Edited by John Hattie and Eric Anderson 2013 IBSN: 978-0-2013-85039-8

Distance Learning Technology and Media

  • Distance Education is one of the most dramatic of the recent technology-based innovations influencing education.
  • Concepts such as the virtual school have caused the practice of Distance Education to dramatically change in the last decade. Traditional approaches to Distance Education based on the delivery of print and broadcast media technologies are no longer as relevant…
  • Distance Education in itself is a disruptive technology to education itself
  • Media are mere vehicles that do not influence achievement
  • Communication Technology is about efficiency and broadening of transactions
  • the best current evidence is that media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in nutrition only the content of the vehicle can influence achievement.
  • the involvement of the learner in the instructional experience influences learning.
  • Technology - reduction of separation is the goal of Distance Education systems
  • Technology - connecting learners, resources and instructors
  • Technology - enabling learners to interact with each other
  • Technology - enabling 2-way communication between (among) teacher and students(s) for the purpose of supporting the educational process
  • Distance education uses technology to mediate two-way communication.
Teaching and Learning at a Distance
Foundations of Distance Education
Simonson, Smaldino, Zvacek
e-book 978-1-62396-800-7

Learning Styles and Visible Learning

  • Learning styles in not related to media or technology, it is related to tailoring to individual learning attributes.
  • The field of learning styles is fragmented and disparate
  • The Learning Style Inventory  doesn’t reliably assess the learning styles of any learners
  • Applying Learning Style based methodologies are a waste of precious teaching and learning time.
  • Learning Style based pedagogy distracts teachers from employing teaching practices that have proven achievement benefits.
International Guide to Student Achievement  Edited by John Hattie and Eric Anderson 2013 IBSN: 978-0-2013-85039-8

Common Learning Style Classifications
  1. Sensing learning: Concrete, practical, oriented towards facts and procedures.
  2. Visual learning: Visual representations of presented material – pictures, diagrams, flow charts.
  3. Inductive learning:  Presentations that proceed from the specific to the general.
  4. Active learning:  Learn by trying things out, working with others.
  5. Sequential learning:  Linear, orderly, learn in small incremental steps.
  6. Intuitive learning: Conceptual, innovative, oriented toward theories and meanings.
  7. Verbal learning: Prefer written and spoken explanations.
  8. Deductive learning: Presentations that go from the general to the specific.
  9. Reflective learners:  Learn by thinking things through, working alone.
  10. Global learning:  Holistic, systems thinkers, learn in large leaps.

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